“OECD Outlines Intends to Prevent Double-Tax Agreement Abuse”

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“OECD Outlines Intends to Prevent Double-Tax Agreement Abuse”

On March 14, 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) printed attorney at law draft set of stopping double-tax agreement abuse (the Agreement Report). The OECD supplemented this release on March 19 having a discussion draft set of neutralizing the results of hybrid mismatch plans from the double-tax agreement perspective (the Agreement Hybrid Report).1 These proposals are regarding the the deliverables promised underneath the OECD’s Plan Of Action on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS).2

The Agreement Report concentrates on three key areas:

1. Growth and development of model agreement provisions and suggested domestic rules to avoid the granting of agreement benefits in inappropriate conditions. Included in this are adding:

  • a limitation of advantages provision (LOB Provision) in to the OECD Model Tax Convention (Model Agreement), much like that present in many U.S. double-tax agreements, that seeks to avoid agreement shopping
  • an extensive general anti-abuse rule in to the Model Agreement (Agreement GAAR) that stops the use of agreement benefits where it’s reasonable to summarize, getting regard to any or all relevant details and conditions, that acquiring that benefit was among the primary purpose of the transaction/arrangement that resulted directly or not directly for the reason that benefit and
  • targeted anti-abuse rules in to the Model Agreement (Agreement TAARs) to handle a quantity of specific avoidance situations in which a person seeks to bypass agreement limitations, including with regards to dual resident companies, getting the issue of residence made the decision first and foremost through the mutual agreement procedure (MAP) and removing the area of effective management test: and

2. Clarification that double-tax agreements aren’t supposed to have been accustomed to cause double nontaxation. Including:

  • changes towards the title and preamble from the Model Agreement, supplemented by certain other changes to the introduction, to explain the agreement is perfect for eliminating double taxation on earnings and capital without creating possibilities for nontaxation and reduced taxation through tax evasion and avoidance.

3. Identification from the tax policy factors that states generally should think about before deciding to initiate a dual-tax agreement with another condition. Included in this are thought on:

  • the presence of perils of double taxation caused by the interaction from the tax systems of these two states involved, especially where one condition levies low or no tax, and whether such risks would justify a dual-tax agreement (it might be that domestic provisions could eliminate double taxation risk)
  • whether you will find aspects of another state’s tax system that may increase the chance of nontaxation and
  • the chance of excessive taxation that could derive from high withholding taxes within the source condition that exceed the quantity of tax normally levied on profits within the condition of residence.

The Hybrid Agreement Report concentrates on three key areas (whilst recognizing that numerous proposals put down within the Agreement Report will have a huge role):

1. Making certain that dual resident entities are unfamiliar with obtain agreement benefits unduly. Including:

  • incorporation in to the Model Agreement the proposal through the Agreement Report to cope with dual-resident companies by MAP only (and elimination of host to effective management in the residence tiebreaker provision), thus allowing states to cope with residence on the situation-by-situation basis
  • incorporation into domestic rules whether Domestic GAAR or perhaps a rule deeming a business as not resident inside a condition if the relevant double-tax agreement treats it as being resident in another condition (this latter approach has already been taken through the U.K.).

2. Making certain that transparent entities are unfamiliar with obtain agreement benefits unduly. Including:

  • incorporation in to the Model Agreement of the provision coping with the earnings of entities or plans that either states agreement as wholly or partially fiscally transparent for tax purposes, whereby the Model Agreement will affect the level the domestic rules from the relevant condition treat the earnings from the entity or arrangement because the earnings of the resident from the condition (an identical provision exists within the U.S./U.K. double-tax agreement).

3. Interaction between your OECD’s domestic law recommendations to neutralize the results of hybrid mismatch plans and also the provisions of double-tax agreements. Including:

  • recognition that, for the way states decide (if) to amend their domestic rules to cope with hybrid mismatches (for instance, denying deductions within the payee condition, forcing inclusion within the recipient condition or taxing the recipient within the payee condition), states might need to amend their double-tax agreements.
  • The deadline for comments around the discussion draft from the Agreement Report is April 9, 2014, along with a public consultation is going to be held on April 14-15, 2014. The deadline for comments around the discussion draft from the Agreement Hybrid Report is May 2, 2014, along with a public consultation is going to be held on May 15, 2014.


Double-tax agreements are bilateral contracts between two claims that allocate taxing legal rights backward and forward states with regards to earnings and capital gains derived in a single Condition with a resident from the other condition. Typically, the purpose of a dual-tax agreement would be to prevent double taxation. However, through the years double-tax agreements happen to be utilized by some taxpayers included in tax minimization strategies.

The OECD initially printed its far-reaching and ambitious Plan Of Action on BEPS on This summer 19, 2013. The OECD sees agreement abuse, for example using double-tax agreements to produce double nontaxation, among the most significant causes of BEPS concerns.

Action 6 from the Plan Of Action would be to prevent agreement abuse by the introduction of model agreement anti-abuse rules and suggestions for model domestic rules to neutralize agreement abuse, and also the discussion draft continues to be created considering this.


Inclusion of the Agreement GAAR was largely considered inevitable. Not every states possess a domestic general anti-abuse rule (Domestic GAAR) that are responsible for tax avoidance generally, though many are thinking about adopting this type of rule. It’s not always obvious whether this type of Domestic GAAR may be used to prevent agreement abuse, as a result Domestic GAARs can in a few conditions be overridden with a double-tax agreement, although in other conditions they are able to override a dual-tax agreement. Clearly it is really an issue to particular states: On Feb 11, 2014, Canada announced a Domestic GAAR that’s directed at agreement abuse and is supposed to override double-tax agreements. Further, the ecu Commission has suggested that EU member states adopt both a “subject to tax” clause within their double-tax agreements (so the earnings of the resident of 1 condition needs to be susceptible to tax for the reason that condition for that resident to acquire agreement relief with that earnings within the other condition), along with a Domestic GAAR to their national laws and regulations.

The Agreement GAAR is deliberately broad in order to catch plans where the one who has got the agreement benefit motive isn’t a party towards the plans, for instance if your really wants to acquire loans from B, but helps make the acquisition using a subsidiary C, that is inside a better withholding tax position than the usual as a result of agreement between B and C’s home states.

Given its breadth, states will have to be very careful regarding the way the Agreement GAAR is enforced. Through the OECD’s own admission, Agreement TAARs generally will give you greater certainty to taxpayers and also to tax administrations than the usual Agreement GAAR, which while supplying versatility to states, can offer uncertainty to taxpayers. Due to the objective assessment from the reasonableness test, different states could see the Agreement GAAR differently, and thus a coordinated approach is going to be needed to help make the Agreement GAAR effective and workable. This kind of approach should imply that unilateral general anti-agreement abuse rules, like the one lately suggested by Canada, is going to be unnecessary.

Considering these 4 elements, very detailed guidance is going to be needed in the OECD regarding the way the Agreement GAAR is to use used, in order to minimize uncertainty and elevated administrative burdens for taxpayers. The discussion draft contains some useful examples, and from all of these it seems that careful analysis make use of a particular jurisdiction for commercial reasons, even where tax is really a consideration, is suitable. For instance, if your company in Condition A has two choices where you can set up a new subsidiary to operate a nearby manufacturing facility, Condition B and Condition C, and also the decision is built to locate it in Condition B because the Condition A/Condition B double-tax agreement has lower withholding tax rates compared to Condition A/Condition C double-tax agreement, then your Agreement GAAR shouldn’t be triggered. This can be a useful clarification, but an unavoidable one, because the OECD may have had to take into consideration EU member states, which must respect the liberty of multinational of EU persons.

With all this breadth from the suggested Agreement GAAR, some might question the requirement for the LOB Provision too. Although the LOB Provision compares the possession structure of the individual claiming agreement benefits and never motive (such that an individual can be denied agreement benefits with regards to a transaction that’s wholly for commercial purposes), the Agreement GAAR looks to motive. The Agreement GAAR can use even where plans have undergone the filter from the LOB Provision. This will make sense as certain groups of taxpayers, for example openly traded companies, generally will invariably fulfill the LOB Provision and without additional rules could abuse double-tax agreements. However the Agreement GAAR must always capture such behavior, so the LOB Provision appears unnecessary.

While numerous Agreement TAARs are incorporated within the discussion draft, one worth highlighting pertains to the agreement tiebreaker rule for dual resident companies. The OECD proposes taking out the host to effective management test that seems in many agreements, and getting the issue of residence made the decision first and foremost through the MAP. If this sounds like to become implemented then your MAP should be greatly streamlined, otherwise taxpayers could be playing uncertainty for several years, in addition to elevated administrative burdens. As the streamlining from the MAP is also an purpose of the Plan Of Action, this proposal will prove to add an additional burden towards the MAP by considerably growing the amount of cases likely to MAP. It might be the faster competent authority process utilized by the U.S. along with a couple of other nations needs to be strengthened and used more broadly to match an “advanced MAP” to provide certainty to multinational groups.

States will have to be careful the way they aim to counter hybrid mismatches within their domestic law. For instance, a state’s domestic law solution of imposing tax on the nonresident recipient without any permanent establishment for the reason that condition might be overridden by double-tax agreements the condition has concluded along with other states, unless of course they’re amended. Additionally, in which a condition is party to some double-tax agreement that gives for any participation exemption for distributions, it may decide to amend that double-tax agreement to make sure that the exemption is denied when the payer obtains a tax break for that distribution within the source condition.

Ultimately, a number of what’s been suggested through the OECD might be considered somewhat harsh, especially poor double-tax agreements. However, a lot of exactly what the OECD proposes isn’t without precedent (for instance, the U.K. has numerous double-tax agreements which contain provisions targeted at denying agreement benefits where persons possess a primary reason for benefiting from a treaty’s provisions), so it might be that states are prepared to incorporate the measures suggested through the OECD.

1 On March 19, 2014, the OECD also released attorney at law draft set of neutralizing the results of hybrid mismatch plans from the domestic law perspective, which isn’t covered within this briefing.

2 See “International Taxation – OECD Reboot for that 21st Century” (This summer 19, 2013), offered at http://world wide web.skadden.com/insights/worldwide-taxation-oecd-reboot-21st-century

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